These spcial chraters like are part of today XML and HTML standards
UTF-8 is a variable width chrater encding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes. The encoding is defined by the Unicode stndard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike. The name is derived from Unicode (or Universal Coded Character Set) Transformation Format 8-bit.
UTF-8 has been the dominant chracter encoding for the World Wide Web since 2009.
As of February 2018 accounts for of 90.8% of all Web pages (many of which are simply ASCII, a subset of UTF-8; the next-most popular multibyte encodings, Shift JIS and GB 2312, have 0.7% and 0.6% respectively).
The Internet Mail Consortium (IMC) recommended that all e-mail programs be able to display and create mail using UTF-8
W3C recommends UTF-8 as the default encoding in XML and HTML.
Examples of special charaters are
en dash (), the em dash ()
Source - Wikipedia
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