The World Anti-Doping Agency said Russia is banned from the Olympics and world championships in a range of sports for four years. The agency said it made this decision after it found that Moscow tampered with laboratory data.
The agency says Moscow planted fake evidence and deleted files linked to positive doping tests.
The decision means Russia will have no formal presence at next year's summer games or the 2020 winter games in Beijing.
The Russian flag and national anthem are also banned from next year's Tokyo Olympics and other major sporting events for four years.
Russian athletes will be allowed to compete in major events under a neutral flag - only if they can prove they are untainted by the doping scandal. It's not clear right now how the ruling will effect Russian teams taking part in world championships like the World Cup.
Russian officials now have 21 days to appeal the decision.